Program

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Global Health in a Time of Worldwide Political Change

CUGH’s annual conference is a must attend event on the global health calendar. Over 1800 scientists, students and implementers from academia, NGOs, government and the private sector will present, learn and collaborate to address some of the pressing challenges our world faces. A wide range of medical and non-medical disciplines are represented throughout the pre-conference satellite day on April 17 (register online & most are free to attend) and the April 18th -20th conference. Attendees will be inspired and challenged and learn new skills, contacts and ways we can improve the health of people and the planet.

AGENDA – DETAILS (SUBJECT TO CHANGE)
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DAY 1 | SATURDAY | APRIL 18, 2020

 

8:00AM – 10:00AM
 
Global Drivers of Human Trafficking: Policy and Community Solutions
Track: Politics, Law, Corruption, Human Rights, Governance, Diplomacy, Strengthening Public Institutions
CS01 

 

Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery in which traffickers use force, fraud, or coercion to entrap victims in commercial sex, domestic servitude, and forced labor. Estimates suggest that there are 25 million victims of this global, multi-billion dollar criminal industry. This panel of leading policymakers and practitioners will discuss the current global trends and drivers of human trafficking, the strengths and weaknesses of the responses to date, and promising prevention approaches going forward. Ambassador Susan Esserman, founder and director of the University of Maryland Support Advocacy Freedom and Empowerment (SAFE) Center for Human Trafficking Survivors, will moderate the panel. The SAFE Center is an initiative of the University of Maryland Strategic Partnership: MPowering the State, a collaboration between the University of Maryland, Baltimore and the University of Maryland, College Park.
Moderator:
Ambassador Susan Esserman, Founder and Director of the University of Maryland Support, Advocacy, Freedom, and Empowerment (SAFE) Center for Human Trafficking Survivors

 

The Multiple Burdens of NCDs
Track: Non-Communicable & Communicable Diseases
CS02

 

While much progress has been made towards understanding the biological basis of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, their complex nature – as a product of interactions between genetic and environmental factors – calls for integrative and innovative approaches in order to translate biology into clinical advances. The panel will debate the broad social and economic trends that drive the rise in cardiometabolic disease and will be challenged by the moderator to propose ways to rethink how those trends affect development.

 

Moderator:
Sir George Alleyne, Director Emeritus, PAHO

Speakers:
Rachel Nugent, Vice President Global NCDs, RTI International; Department of Global Health, University of Washington, USA
Tom Bollyky, Director of Global Health and Senior Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations, USA
Adnan Hyder, Senior Associate Dean Research and Professor of Global Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, USA
Tolu Oni, Clinical Senior Research Fellow, University of Cambridge MRC Epidemiology Unit’s Global Public Health Research Programme, Honorary Associate Professor in Public Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Johanna Ralston, CEO, World Obesity Foundation, UK


Disabilities in the Global South: A Call to Action
Track: Addressing the Social Determinants of Health
CS03
​This panel brings together academic and NGO experts in disability work in the Global South to discuss the WHO urgent call to action on disability issues in Global Public Health, and highlights asset-based ethical program models and grassroots projects that create inclusive communities in underserved regions.

Moderator:
Moira Rogers, Director of Programs and Latin America, Child Family Health International, USA

Speakers
Joel Buenaventura, Medical Director, Remote Island Medicine Program for the Philippines, Child Family Health International, the Philippines
Kripa Dholakia, Clinical Instructor, Widener University, USA
Charles Nwobu, Country Medical and Program Director for Ghana, Child Family Health International, Ghana

Jessica Sanchez Vargas, Director of MiPequenaAyuda, MySmallHelp, Peru

 

Training the next generation of global health researchers: the NIH-Fogarty Global Health Fellows Programs
Track: Strengthening Health Systems, Public Health, Primary and Surgical Care
CS04

The Fogarty International Center, with partners at the NIH, supports global health research training to U.S. and LMIC pre- and postdoctoral trainees from all health-related disciplines. The Global Health Fellows and Scholars Program supports six consortia of U.S. academic institutions to provide mentored research training opportunities at international partner institutions in developing countries with robust clinical research programs. Each consortium includes four U.S. academic institutions and their respective international partner institutions, offering global health research training in communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases, and translational and implementation sciences. On this panel, alumni will discuss their research and training experiences, and career paths.

 

Moderator:
Wafaie Fawzi

 

Speakers:
Luke Smart
Meghan Burke Fitzpatrick
 
Health Research in Humanitarian Crises: Why it is Needed and How it is Done
CS05

Humanitarian crises – including armed conflict, forced displacement, disease outbreaks, and natural disasters – affect more people today than any point in recorded history. Yet, the evidence base informing how humanitarian organizations respond to these crises is weak. The global health research community is playing a role in addressing this evidence gap by studying key scientific questions that can only be answered through research. In this session, researchers will share their own experiences in the field studying important public health issues in crises, highlighting the urgent need for high-quality research and the strategies used to work in these challenging settings.

Moderator:

Brandon Kohrt, Charles and Sonia Akman Professor in Global Psychiatry; Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Global Health, & Anthropology, George Washington University, USA
Speakers:
Bachera Aktar, Co-Assistant Director of Centre of Excellence for Gender, Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights, BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Bangladesh
Rana Dajani, Associate Professor of Molecular Cell Biology, Hashemite University, Jordan
Laura Ho, Deputy Director, Health Unit, International Rescue Committee, USA
Denisse Vega Ocasio, University of Rochester, USA

 

Oral Abstracts 1: Planetary Health, One Health, Environmental Health, Climate Change And Pollution (PHOH)
CS06
Speakers:
Takujungla Jamir, University Health Center, Nagaland University, India
Brucellosis Among Pyrexia of Unknown Origin Cases in Amsing Jorabat Sub-centre, Kamrup Metro, Assam, India 2015
Zoe Grange, One Health Institute, University of California Davis, USA
SpillOver: Ranking the Risk of Viral Spillover from Animals to Humans
Oliver A. Elorreaga, Emerge, Emerging Diseases and Climate Change Research Unit, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia; Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru
El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Stunting in Children under Five in Peru
Sylvia Blom, Cornell University, USA
Heat Exposure and Children’s Nutrition: Evidence from West Africa    
Mazbahul Ahamad, School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA
Household Smoke Exposure Risks from Cooking Fuels and Places in Tanzania: A Cross-sectional Analysis of Nationally Representative Survey Data
Pallavi Oruganti, Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, USA
Influence of Sociodemographic Factors on Zoonotic Pathogen Risk in a Resource-Limited Community at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface, Mpumalanga, South Africa    
Andria Rusk, Dominican University of California, USA
Spatiotemporal dynamics of vector-borne disease risk varies across human land-use gradients: Examining the role of agriculture, indigenous territories, and protected areas in Costa Rica
Oral Abstracts 2: Translation And Implementation Science, High Impact Development Initiatives, Bridging Research To Policy, Reforming Academia (TSI)
CS07
Speakers:
Nadia Sam-Agudu, University of Maryland Baltimore, USA
Tuberculosis Preventive Therapy Uptake among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Northern Nigeria
Chiqui de Veyra, National Institutes of Health, the Philippines
The War on Worms Campaign: Bridging Research to Policy for the Prevention and Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases in the Philippines
 
Oge Onuh, Department of Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA
Cost Analysis and Barriers to Implementing and Sustaining a Successful Long-Term International Surgical Resident Rotation
 
Palmira Fortuanto dos Santos, Mental Health – Center for Applied Psychology and Psychometric Tests, Ministry of Health of Mozambique, Mozambique
Implementation of mhGAP in Mozambique: Integrating Epilepsy Care into the Primary Health Care System
Yvonne Commodore-Mensah, African Research Academies for Women, USA
Action Towards Bridging the Gender Equality Gap in STEM to Transform the Pipeline in Africa Providing Rich, Experiential Learning in Global Health: The African Research Academies for Women
Rina Friedberg, Statistics, Stanford University, USA
Spatial Statistics for Violence Prevention: Understanding Patterns of Violence in Nairobi through GPS Data and Maps
Sarina Dane, ICAP at Columbia University, USA
Reaching the 1st 90 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Optimizing HIV Case Finding through Intensified Index Testing
Meet the Editors
CS08

Finding the right journal for your work can be confusing and at times frustrating. What are editors of different global health journals looking for in a manuscript? How can you “sell” your paper to an editor or a journalist? And what are the innovations and challenges in the world of publishing today? Join the Editors of both established and new global health journals, plus representatives from the popular media, to hear about these issues and more in a frank and interactive discussion.
Moderator: 
Zoe Mullan, Editor, Lancet Global Health,  UK
Speakers:
Philip Landrigan, Editor, Annals of Global Health, USA
Juhwan Oh, Editor, Journal of Global Health Science, Korea
Martin LaMonica, Deputy Editor for Health/Science, The Conversation, USA

Audrey Ceschia, Editor-in-Chief, The Lancet Public Health, USA

10:00AM – 10:20AM

Health Break, Exhibits, Network
10:20AM – 10:45AM
Welcome Session

10:45AM – 11:00AM

CUGH Distringuished Leader in Global Health Award
11:00AM – 11:30AM

Keynote Address
PL01
11:30AM – 01:00PM

Emerging Infectious Diseases and their Impact on Global Health Security
PL02
Track: Non-Communicable & Communicable Diseases

 

This Plenary Panel will highlight the continual threats of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and their impact on global security for surveillance, detection, treatment and prevention of these diseases. Over recent decades, multiple epidemic events have underscored how highly vulnerable we are to viral threats. Our world is globally connected—and an “emerging threat” in one part of the world can pose a threat everywhere and to everyone. About 75 percent of new human diseases are caused by microbes that originate in animals. These include HIV, influenzas (including pandemic H1N1, H5N1, and H7N9), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Ebola, Marburg, and Nipah. This panel of leading experts will discuss the emergence of these microbial threats, and our ability to detect, respond and prevent future epidemics of these pathogens.

 

Moderator:
Tom Quinn, Chief, International HIV/STD Research Section, Associate Director of International Research, DIR NIAID, and Director of Global Health, John Hopkins University, USA
Man Charurat, Director, Center for International Health, Education, and Biosecurity (CIHEB) and Director of the Division of Epidemiology and Prevention at the Institute of Human Virology, USA
Speakers:
Anthony Fauci, Director, NIAID, USA
Chikwe Ihekweazu, Director General, Nigeria CDC, Nigeria
Peter Hotez, Dean, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, USA
Jonna Mazet, Executive Director, One Health Institute, and PI, PREDICT project, UC Davis, USA

Jennifer Nuzzo, Senior Scholar, Center for Health Security, Johns Hopkins University, USA

Future of Health and Health Diplomacy
PL03
Track: Politics, Law, Corruption, Human Rights, Governance, Diplomacy, Strengthening Public Institutions
This plenary will discuss how diplomacy is critical to the programmatic and financial sustainability of health program implementation. Ambassador Mark Dybul, the Co-Director of the Center for Global Health Practice and Impact at Georgetown University, will provide examples from his own leadership experience and current work in outlining why diplomacy is a critical tool to sustainably improve populations’ health and wellbeing and is necessary for achieving goals of equity and social justice. The plenary will explore the challenges of teaching these diplomatic skills in the classroom and the field, and the role of the academic community in preparing current and future health practitioners.
Moderator:
Mark Dybul, Co-Director of the Center for Global Health and Quality, Professor, Medicine Department, Georgetown University Medical Center, USA
Speakers:
Victor Dzau, President of the National Academy of Medicine, USA
Ambassador-at-Large Deborah L. Birx, Coordinator of the United States Government Activities to Combat HIV/AIDS, US Special Representative for Global Health Diplomacy, USA
Elizabeth Cameron, Vice President, Global Biological Policy and Programs, Nuclear Threat Initiative, USA

Deus Bazira, Co-Director of the Center for Global Health Practice and Impact at Georgetown University Medical Center, USA

01:00PM – 02:30PM

Lunch Break, Posters, Exhibits, Network
Poster Abstract Presentations
02:30PM – 04:00PM
Vaccines as a Tool for Global Health Equity
PL04
Track: Non-Communicable & Communicable Diseases

Vaccines represent one of the greatest public health achievements and are one of the most effective tools of modern preventative medicine. The development of effective vaccines and global immunization programs has led to a significant decline in the incidence of severe and potentially lethal infections and related deaths. It has also led to the eradication / near eradication of once lethal infectious diseases, such as smallpox and polio. Consequently, vaccination – through the control of infectious diseases – has contributed to a striking increase in life expectancy in many countries worldwide and is a tool for global health equity. However, we still face several important challenges towards developing more efficacious vaccines for many diseases and for different populations. This panel will describe the promise of vaccines as a public health tool and challenges in global vaccinology, including developing vaccines for underserved populations; the effects of migration on vaccine preventable infectious diseases; and vaccine hesitancy.
Moderator:
Kathleen M. Neuzil, Myron M. Levine MD, Professor in Vaccinology and Director, Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine
Speakers:
Kathleen M. Neuzil, Myron M. Levine, MD, Professor in Vaccinology and Director, Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, USA
Samba Sow, former Minister of Health and Public Hygiene, Mali and Director General of CVD-Mali, Mali
Rebecca Martin, Director of the Center for Global Health at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA
Mark Travassos, Co-Director Immunoepidemiology and Pathogenesis Unit, Malaria Research Program, Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, USA
Plenary V (PL05): 2020 – The Year of the Nurse and Midwife – Taking Stock and Moving Forward
The World Health Organisation Executive Board has designated 2020 as the Year of the Nurse and Midwife. Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General, has emphasized that nurses and midwives are crucial to achieving Universal Health Coverage and the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. There are 43.5 million health workers globally. It is estimated that 20.7 million of these are nurses and midwives and many of these are in low and middle income countries.  There are less than three nursing and midwifery personnel per 1000 population which is of concern in achieving ambitious global targets. The State of the World’s Nursing Report will be launched in Geneva on World Health Day on April 7th and will provide a report on the current state of nursing around the globe and a pathway forward for achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals through advocacy and workforce development. This session will discuss the role of nurses and midwives as members of the health care team to advance global health.
Moderator:
Patricia Davidson, Dean, Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, USA
Speakers:
Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General, World Health Organization, Switzerland (video message)
Elizabeth Iro, Chief Nursing Officer, World Health Organization, Switzerland
Peter Johnson, Senior Director of Nursing & Midwifery, JHPIEGO, USA
Ann Kurth, President of CUGH and Dean of Yale School of Nursing, USA
Frances McConville, Technical Officer, Midwifery, World Health Organization, Switzerland

Bunmi Ogungbe, PhD Candidate, Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, USA

04:00PM – 04:30PM
Health Break, Exhibits, Networks
04:30PM – 06:00PM
War and Global Health:  The Urgency of Engagement
Track: Strengthening Health Systems, Public Health, Primary and Surgical Care
CS09

 

War profoundly undermines health in immediate and multi-generational ways. Countries in conflict are least likely to reach the Sustainable Development Goals because of weak health systems, flight of health workers, social conditions that impair health, and lack of resources or spending on health. Urban warfare, attacks on health care, and new weapons exacerbates the harms of war to health. Yet conflict and health remains a footnote in our field.  This panel reviews opportunities for academic engagement in research, teaching and policy,  introducing a new alliance of academics and practitioners on war, conflict and health.
Moderator:
Leonard Rubenstein, Senior Faculty, Director, Program in Human Rights, Health and Conflict at the Center for Human Rights and Public Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA
Speakers:
Alexandra Boivin, Head of Regional Delegation for the United States and Canada, International Committee of the Red Cross, USA
Samer Jabbour, Associate Professor of Public Health at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon
Amy Hagopian, Professor of Global Health, University of Washington, USA
Child Health Equity in the Context of Forced Displacement: Lessons from Lebanon
Track: Addressing Social Determinants of Health
CS10

Lebanon has the largest number of refugees per capita in the world and social indicators are often stratified by refugee status.  Refugee children face health hazards concurrent with legal and socio-economic hurdles. United Nations agencies, the Government of Lebanon and NGOs have partnered with academia in designing and evaluating refugee child health programs. Researchers will describe intervention studies that address early marriage and child labor, followed by a geospatial analysis of child well-being indices in the context of social determinants and non-medical, health-related social needs.  Each panelist will describe how the knowledge gained translates into legislation, policy and program design.  

Moderator:

Rima Afifi, Professor, Interim Chairperson, Department of Community and Behavioral Health, University of Iowa College of Public Health, USA
Speakers:
Sawsan Abdulrahim, Associate Professor of Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, at American University of Beirut, Lebanon
Rima Habib, Professor, Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Health Sciences at American University of Beirut, Lebanon

Hala Ghattas, Associate Research Professor and Interim Director at the Center for Research on Population and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences at American University of Beirut, Lebanon

Reflections in Global Health: 2020 Essay Contest Reading and Discussion
CS11
 
The essay reading session features the top entries in the 7th Annual CUGH Global Health Essay Contest. The essays, while reflecting a wide range of personal and professional impacts, document health inequities and social justice issues from all countries, rich and poor. Together, their messages of resilience, courage, and fraternity bring hope in the power of all of us to make a difference.
 
Moderators:
Thuy Bui, Director, Global Health Residency, University of Pittsburgh, USA
Jessica Evert, Executive Director, Child Family Health International, USA
Virginia McCarthy, Director, University Ministry, Loyola University, USA
Winners/Speakers:
Trainees from LMIC:
Jessy Uchindami Gondwe, University of Global Health Equity (UGHE), Rwanda
Trainees: 
Julia Zigman, Washington University in St. Louis, USA
Practitioner/Faculty:
Matt Evans, Lao Friends Hospital for Children, Lao PDR
Honorable Mentions:
Amoghavarsha Havanur, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, USA
Hanna Peifer, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, USA
Jean Pierre Tincopa Flores, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru
Vijay Kannan, Harvard Medical School, USA
David Means, University of Louisville School of Medicine, USA
Cristina Viguera Altolaguirre, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, USA
Emergency Care Systems for Universal Health Coverage: The Way Forward in the Successful Implementation of the 2019 Emergency/Trauma WHA Resolution
Track: Non-Communicable & Communicable Diseases
CS12
In 2019, the World Health Assembly passed Resolution 72.16, “Emergency care systems for universal health coverage: ensuring timely care for the acutely ill and injured.” Ensuring timely diagnosis and treatment, emergency care systems provide essential care for a wide range of illness and injury; high quality emergency care could address 54% of the mortality that occurs in LMICs. 
Moderator:
Regan Marsh, Professor of Emergency Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Director of Clinical Systems for Partners In Health (PIH), USA
Speakers:
Tsion Firew, Advisor to the Minister of Health of Ethiopia on Emergency Care and Strategic Partnership, Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine and Clinical Faculty at Columbia University, USA
Teri Reynolds, Lead for the Emergency, Trauma and Acute Care Program at the World Health Organization, Secretariat Coordinator for the WHO Global Alliance for the Care of the Injured, Associate Professor, University of California, USA
Linda Rimpel, Chief of Emergency Medicine at Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais (HUM), Haiti
Janis P. Tupesis, Chairperson of the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Heath’s Graduate Medical Education Global Health Committee, Associate Director of the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Global Health Institute, USA
Lee Wallis, Head of Emergency Medicine for the Western Cape Government, Professor and Head of the Division of Emergency Medicine at the University of Cape Town and Professor of Emergency Medicine at Stellenbosch University, South Africa

 

Global One Health:  An Integrated Capacity Building Approach to Prevent Pandemics
Track: Planetary Health, One Health, Environmental Health, Climate Change and Pollution
CS13

 

Over two-thirds of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in origin, causing an estimated 2.5 billion human illness annually.  Capacity to mitigate these threats remains highly insufficient in many African countries. The Ohio State University Global One Health initiative has successfully expanded capacity via a One-Health approach by addressing causes and effects of diseases at the interface of humans, animals, plants and environment.  We will discuss methods to successfully integrate solutions expanding on three-prong approach: (1) providing short- and long-term workforce capacity training; (2) strengthening surveillance infrastructure (field-deployable systems and laboratories); and (3) building community awareness through targeted interventions. Additional panel topics include USAID Emerging Pandemic Threats Predict Project and surveillance of viral pathogens and Integrated TB/HIV detection and care in Guatemala.
Moderators:
Wondwossen Gebreyes, Executive Director of The Ohio State University Global One Health initiative (GOHi) and Distinguished Professor of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, USA
Shu-Hua Wang, Professor of Medicine at The Ohio State University, USA
Speakers:
Getnet Ali, Director of Global One Health Eastern Africa Non-Governmental Organization in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Associate Professor of Medicine, The Ohio State University, USA
Janet Ikeda, Founder and Executive Director of Asociación de Investigación, Desarrollo y Educación Integral (IDEI) in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala
Tracey Goldstein, Associate Director and Professor at the University of California Davis, One Health Institute, USA
Oral Abstracts 3: Upcoming Research by Scientists in LLMICs
CS14
Speakers:
Bishal Gyawali, Community Health Development Nepal (CHEDEN), Nepal
Effectiveness of a Female Community Health Volunteers-Led Lifestyle Intervention in Blood Glucose Reduction Among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cluster-Randomized Trial
Vishal Dogra, Research and Analysis, Piramal Swasthya Management and Research Institute, India
Health on the Wheels: A Healing Touch for Ailing Primary Care in India
 
Jude Altema, Saint Boniface Hospital, Sud, Haiti
Waiting Time in Health Consultations Services, Measurement, Causes, Consequences and Strategies to Reduce Them
 
Iboro Nelson, Department of Economics, University of Uyo, Nigeria
Engendering Equity in Health: An analysis of Nigeria’s Social Health Insurance Scheme and Basic Health Care Provision Fund
Joel Fokom Domgue, Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Service, Cameroon
Implementation Of The Project ECHO To Build Capacity Of Providers Within A Cervical Cancer Prevention Program In Africa: A Successful Experience In Cameroon
Julia Songok, Pediatrics, Moi University, Kenya
Chamas for Change: Validating a Group-based Health Education and Micro-finance Program for Women and Infants in Kenya
Abimbola Phillips, Community Health, OAUTHC, Nigeria
Correlates of Mutual Dating Violence among Secondary School Adolescents in a South-Western State of Nigeria
​Oral Abstracts 4: Politics, Law, Corruption, Human Rights, Governance, Diplomacy, Strengthening Public Institutions 
CS15
Speakers:
Jeffrey Lane, Department of Global Health, University of Washington, USA
Strengthening Health Policy Development and Management Systems in Low- and Middle- Income Countries: South Africa’s Approach
Lauren Fischer, Infectious Diseases, Washington University in St. Louis, USA
Perceptions of Justice Among Rohingya Refugees Identify Mental Health and Psychosocial Services Needs and Inform Program Development for Local Organizations
Gordon Shen, Management, Policy and Community Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health, USA
Knowledge Use in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Policy Development of Mexico and Chile
 
Ipchita Bharali, Center for Policy Impact in Global Health, Duke University, USA
Perspectives on Transitions away from Donor Assistance for Health: Evidence from a Discrete Choices Experiment (DCE) in Sri Lanka
Angela Chang, Danish Institute for Advanced Study, Denmark
Moving beyond GDP for measuring welfare – Estimating the Level and Rate of Growth of Health Adjusted Income
Etinosa Oghogho, Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Florida International University, USA
Effect of Medicaid Expansion Status on Late and no Prenatal Care in Black and White US Mothers
Ruth Iguiñiz-Romero, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru
Governance Processes Defining Maternal Mortality Prevention Policy Shifts in Peru
Public Health Research and Education in LDCs: Learning from North & South
CS16
Track: Translation and Implementation Science, High Impact Development Initiatives, Bridging Research to Policy, Reforming Academia
A well-trained global public health workforce is critical for development and health.  Most workforce training for the global South occurs in those settings. It is therefore imperative that we share best evidence from these settings, to inform curricular development in the global North, cross-train our global community of academics, and create regional self-sustaining networks of educational collaboration. This panel brings together representative institutions from South Asia, to share their journeys to locally appropriate, globally relevant public health curricula. We also highlight the important role of CUGH in convening collaboratives, and applying core materials such as the Global Health Education Toolkit.

 

Moderator:
Omar Khan, President and CEO, Delaware Health Sciences Alliance, USA
 
Speakers:
Mushtaque Chowdhury, Professor and Vice Chairperson, BRAC University, Bangladesh
Sabina Rashid, Professor and Dean, BRAC University School of Public Health, Bangladesh
Shivaprasad Goudar, Professor and Site Principal Investigator, JN Medical College, India

Omrana Pasha, Pennsylvania State University, USA

HIV on Edge
CS17

Film by Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS): Pandemic and Paradox: HIV on the Edge
J. Stephen Morrison (CSIS) and Justin Kenny (Small Footprint Films), with contributions from Sara Allinder (CSIS) and Michael Merson (Duke), are releasing in April the CSIS feature documentary, ‘Pandemic and Paradox: HIV on the Edge.’  In it they examine the long arc of the HIV pandemic — the early plague years; the subsequent transformations in financing, treatment, and other innovations; and the present era of continued advance technologically and programmatically, against the backdrop of continued high levels of new infections and annual deaths, disquiet and uncertainty over how to sustain the gains achieved, and evident risks of regression. The film draws from on-camera interviews with over three dozen prominent, diverse leaders in the field. The filmmakers visited South Africa, the southern United States, and Ukraine to hear first-hand from those on the front lines. It closes with consideration of future priorities and what lies ahead, as HIV approaches its fifth decade. The film will be screened and followed by a panel discussion, moderated by Sara Allinder, with the filmmakers and experts who contributed to the film.
Moderator:  
Sara Allinder, Executive Director and Senior Fellow, Global Health Policy Center, CSIS, USA
Speakers:
Stephen Morrison, Senior Vice President and Director, Global Health Policy Center, CSIS, USA
Justin Kenny, Owner, Small Footprint Films, USA
DAY 2 | SUNDAY | APRIL 19, 2020

8:45AM – 10:15AM

 

Rohingya in Bangladesh: The World’s Largest Refugee Settlement
Track: Politics, Law, Corruption, Human Rights, Governance, Diplomacy, Strengthening Public Institutions
CS18

 

The ongoing genocide and ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya ethnic minority from Myanmar added 731,000 new refugees in 2017 added to 300,000 older refugee in the Southeastern Bangladesh region of Cox’s Bazar district at the border with Myanmar. With 33 camps, Cox’s Bazaar has the world’s largest concentration of refugees.  MedGlobal, a U.S. based NGO, has been engaged in Cox’s Bazaar, in partnerships with local NGO’s, UN agencies, and University of Illinois at Chicago Global Health. This breakout session focuses on several top health priorities which are examined from multi-disciplinary perspectives, including medical, mental health, humanitarian, and ethical.

 

Moderators:
Stevan Weine, Professor and Director of Global Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Speakers:
Henna Quraishi, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
Maryam Molla, Field Coordinator, MedGlobal, Bangladesh
Diana Rayes, Global Mental Health Consultant, USA
Azeem Ibrahim, Senior Fellow at the Center for Global Policy, and Adjunct Research Professor at the Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, USA
Zaher Sahloul, Associate Clinical Professor, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Leveraging Digital Technology to Build Global Mental Health Research Capacity
Track: Addressing the Social Determinants of Health
CS19

 

The rapid growth of digital technology provides new solutions to transforming mental health care and services, and has the potential to address multiple implementation barriers. This symposium highlights four global mental health research projects supported by National Institute of Mental Health as a part of the Fogarty International Center’s “Mobile Health: Technology and Outcomes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries”. We will present how digital technology is applied in clinical interventions, health workforce training, and clinical practice guideline implementation. These innovative projects leverage digital technology to support science-based mental health care and research capacity building in low- and middle-income countries.

 

Moderator:
Makeda J. Williams, Chief, NIMH Global Mental Health Effectiveness Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH,  USA
Speakers:
Sheikh Iqbal Ahamed, Professor and Chair, Department of Computer Science, Marquette University
Keng-Yen Huang, Associate Professor of Population Health and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, USA
Corina Lelutiu-Weinberger, Assistant Professor of Community Health, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, USA

Huijun Li, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Florida A&M University, USA

Lifting All Boats: Moving Towards Equity in Clinical Education  
CS20
Faculty and resident physicians from high-income countries face few barriers in obtaining clinical education in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), while opportunities for short-term clinical education of international physicians in the United States are limited by federal visa laws, state regulations around the practice of medicine, and institutional policies. This panel will discuss the present state of these barriers, review an example of a productive partnership that has overcome several of these, provide perspective from LMIC faculty on what opportunities they think are most urgently needed, and engage in the audience in discussion around the next steps in advocacy for equity.

Moderator:
James Hudspeth, Assistant Professor of Medicine and Director of Global Health for the Internal Medicine Residency, School of Medicine, Boston University, USA

Speakers:
Bradley A. Dreifuss, Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine and Director of Rural and Global Emergency Medicine Programs, College of Medicine, University of Arizona – Tucson, USA
Chris Longenecker, Associate Professor of Medicine and Director, Harrington Heart & Vascular Institute Research & Innovation Center at University Hospitals, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, USA
Tracy Rabin, Assistant Professor of Medicine and Assistant Director of the Office of Global Health in the Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Yale University, USA
Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Professor of Medicine and Director of the Makerere-Yale Global Health Program, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Uganda
Towards a Political Economy of Health in Conflict: Health Sector Dynamics in Gaza, Lebanon and Turkey
Track: Politics, Law, Corruption, Human Rights, Governance, Diplomacy, Strengthening Public Institutions
CS21
Armed conflict can have transformative effects on processes of prioritization, policy making and implementation in affected health sectors. However, the particular nature of the changes that health stakeholders face, the evolution in power dynamics between actors, incentive structures, and other political and economic determinants of decision-making are poorly understood. Countries affected by conflict in the MENA region present important contexts for empirical investigation of these factors. This session will bring together preliminary findings from a multi-country analysis focusing on Gaza, Lebanon and Turkey to help delineate the contours of a political economy of health in countries affected by conflict. 
Moderator: 
Richard Sullivan, Professor of Cancer and Global Health; Director, Institute of Cancer Policy and Director, Conflict & Health Research Group, King’s College London, UK
Speakers: 
Sheikh Iqbal Ahamed, Professor and Chair, Department of Computer Science, Marquette University
Fouad M. Fouad, Assistant Professor, Co-Director, American University of Beirut, Lebanon
Mona Jebril, Research Fellow, University of Cambridge, UK
Ilhan Can Ozen, Assistant Professor, Middle East Technical University, Turkey
Ferdinand Eibl, Assistant Professor in Political Economy, King’s College London, UK

 

Developing Competencies and Curriculum for Teaching Implementation Science in Global Health
Track: Translation and Implementation Science, High Impact Development Initiatives, Bridging Research to Policy, Reforming Academia
CS22
 
This panel will describe an interdisciplinary approach used to develop core competencies for teaching and training in implementation science with emphasis on low and middle-income countries within a consortium of global academic institutions. The panel will discuss the framework of core competencies that was developed, and its application to graduate public health programs in selected regional academic institutions globally, and its relevance for codifying and disseminating knowledge assets derived from implementation of global health programs using the global polio eradication initiative as an example.
Moderator:
Olakunle Alonge, Assistant Professor, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA
Speakers:
Yodi Mahendradhata, Director for the Center for Health Policy and Management, Vice-Dean for Research and Collaboration, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
Malabika Sarker, Associate Dean, BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health, Bangladesh
Svea Closser, Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA
Mahnaz Vahendi, Scientist, Research Capacity Building and Knowledge Management, Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), Geneva, Switzerland
Oral Abstracts 5: Young Scientists
CS23
 
Speakers:
Emma Cardeli, Psychiatry, Boston Children’s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, USA
Implementing Trauma Systems Therapy for Refugees (TST-R) with a Multi-Ethnic Refugee Population: Challenges and Success
Sarai Acosta, SVM: Population Health and Reproduction, University of California Davis, USA
A Collaborative Educational Approach to Empowering Women of Rural Nepal Through Improvement of Poultry Rearing Practices
Anvita Bhardwaj, Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA
Effects of Depression, Stigma, Substance Use, and Violence on Viral Suppression among HIV Positive Female Sex Workers in Durban, South Africa
Sharla Rent, Duke University, USA
Understanding Provider Views on Practicing Neonatal Intensive Care: Perspectives from Across Africa
Nkandu Yumbe, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, USA
An investigation of Intimate Partner Violence, Colorism, and Stress Coping Behaviors in Black Barbadian Women
Jerry John Nutor, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, USA
Access to Water and Toilet Facility Predicts Adherence to Anti-Retroviral Treatment among Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Zambia
Kathy Trang, Anthropology, Emory University, USA
Feasibility, Acceptability, and Design of an mHealth App for High-Risk MSM in Hanoi, Vietnam

 

Oral Abstracts 6: Global Health Education
CS24
Speakers:
Parisa Fallah, Harvard Medical School, USA
Developing a Longitudinal Case-Based Global Health Curriculum for the Clerkships
Caitlin Kaeppler, Medical College of Wisconsin, USA
Opportunities in Global Health Do Influence Residency Selection
Elisabeth Maring, Department of Family Science, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, USA
Training Students to Design Global Health Workshops using Health Literacy Principles
Lia Harris, Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Canada
Neonatal Resuscitation Education Needs Assessment in a Rohingya Refugee Camp in Rural Bangladesh
Tao Le, University of Louisville, USA
Evaluation of a Low-Cost Undergraduate Digital Medical Curriculum Platform in Rwanda
Emma Mitchell, School of Nursing, University of Virginia, USA
Partnering to Develop Simulations for Nursing Students About Disaster Preparedness in Response to Climate Change
Elsie Kiguli-Malwadde, African Centre for Global Health and Social Transformation, Medical Education Partnership Initiative, Uganda
Developing an Inter-Professional Curriculum to Improve Team-Based HIV Care in Sub Saharan Africa: Focusing on Learners in Transition

 

HSPH.29 Strengthening Acute and Emergency Care Systems for Universal Health Care in Africa
Track: Strengthening Health Systems, Public Health, Primary and Surgical Care
CS25

 

Health system strengthening is critical to achieving universal health coverage and acute and emergency care are the backbone of a robust healthcare system.  This session will examine African acute and emergency care systems through a public health lens and discuss the following themes: 1) global health equity from an African perspective: development of authentic and accountable partnerships, 2) barriers to strengthening acute and emergency care in Africa, 3) the role of the community health worker and community health clinic in acute and emergency health care, and 4) integration of acute and emergency systems strengthening in Africa.

 

Moderator:
Jimmy Volmink, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences and Professor of Global Health, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Speakers:
Teri Reynolds, Clinical Services and Systems Lead, World Health Organization, USA
Lee Wallis, Head of Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Emmanuel Makasa, Wits Centre of Surgical Care for Primary Health and Sustainable Development, University of Witwatersrand, South Africa

Rene English, Head of Division of Health Systems and Public Health, Stellenbosch University, South Africa

Update on COVID-19 Pandemic
Track: Strengthening Health Systems, Public Health, Primary and Surgical Care
CS25
Moderator:
Judith Wasserheit, Chair, Department of Global Health, University of Washington USA
10:15AM – 10:45AM

Coffee Break, Exhibits, Network

The Great Global Health Debate
PL06
Two exciting global health leaders will debate the statement:
Be it resolved that official development assistance causes more harm than good. 
Moderator:
Tom Quinn, Chief, International HIV/STD Research Section, Associate Director of International Research, DIR NIAID, and Director of Global Health, John Hopkins University, USA
For:
Against:

Stephen Morrison, Senior Vice President and Director, Global Health Policy Center, CSIS, USA

​11:30AM – 12:30PM

Gairdner Global Health Address
PL07
Introduction:
Sommer Wedlock, Vice President and Director, Communications, Gairdner Global Health, Canada
Dr. Vikram Patel is the 2019 John Dirks Canada Gairdner Global Health laureate. He was awarded “For his world-leading research in global mental health, generating knowledge on the burden and determinants of mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries and pioneering approaches for the prevention and treatment of mental health in low-resource settings.” During this plenary lecture he will talk about his research and the impact of receiving the Gairdner Award. Dr. Patel has dedicated his research career to raising the global profile of mental health problems through: epidemiological research demonstrating the burden of mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries, their strong association with poverty and with other public health priorities, such as HIV and child growth and development; and intervention research in which he has applied a systematic approach to the design, delivery and evaluation of contextually appropriate psychosocial interventions provided by lay and community health providers.
Speaker:
Vikram Patel, FMedSci, The Pershing Square Professor of Global Health and Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Professor, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health; Honorary Professor of Global Mental Health, Centre for Global Mental Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine; Adjunct Professor, Centre for Chronic Conditions and Injuries, Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi; Co-founder, Sangath, India
12:30PM – 12:45PM
Year of the Nurse

The World Health Organisation Executive Board has designated 2020 as the Year of the Nurse and Midwife. Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General, has emphasized that nurses and midwives are crucial to achieving Universal Health Coverage and the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. The world needs 9 million more nurses and midwives if it is to achieve universal health coverage by 2030.  As we grapple with health care challenges globally, we need to consider this workforce as being integral to a coordinated human resources for health strategy.
Presenter:

Patricia Davidson, Dean, Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, US, Australia

12:45PM – 1:00PM
CUGH Hall-Sewankambo Mid-Career Global Health Award, CUGH Wasserheit Young Leader Award
1:00PM – 2:30PM

Lunch Break, Posters, Exhibits, Network 
1:00PM – 2:00PM

Awards Ceremony 

01:00PM – 2:30PM

Poster Abstract Presentation
02:30PM – 4:00PM

Adolescence, Gender and the Sustainable Development Goals: Exploration of Challenges and Policy Solutions
PL08
This session will explore the specific challenges that adolescents face in low and middle income countries focusing on implications for the sustainable development goals. It will focus on education, sexual and reproductive health, mental health and violence, paying particular attention to gender.  The session will also explore potential policy solutions, and provide suggestions for future research.
Moderator
Mary Ellsberg, The Global Women’s Institute, George Washington University, USA
Speakers:
Presentation 1: What works to Improve the Lives of Adolescents: Preliminary findings from the Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) Study
Sarah Baird, George Washington University, USA
Presentation 2: The Power of HER Story: Changing Gender Attitudes Among Adolescents
Amita Vyas, George Washington University, USA
Presentation 3: Comparing Three Measures of Sexual Violence in Liberian Schools
Justin Sandefur, Center for Global Development, USA
Presentation 4: Understanding How Armed Conflict and Displacement Effects Violence Against Adolescent Girls: The Case of South Sudan
Maureen Murphy, The Global Women’s Institute, George Washington University, USA
African perspectives on Health Professions Education, Research, and Service Delivery in a TIme of Worldwide Political Change
PL09
Health issues on the African continent are as much affected by worldwide political changes as is global health across the world.  The African context, however, provides for unique challenges, but at the same time also presents exceptional opportunities to address these tasks. AFREhealth seeks to contribute towards establishing and sustaining a responsive workforce, providing high quality, evidence-based health care in Africa. The organization functions as a network of networks in Africa, working across multiple countries and numerous regional and international partnerships. This discussion session draws together a diverse panel representing various professions and south-north partnerships, sharing their experiences in these various domains.
Moderator:
Abigail Kazembe, Lecturer, Kamuzu College of Nursing, University of Malawi, Malawi
Joseph Kolars, Senior Associate Dean for Education and Global Initiatives Josiah Macy, Jr., Professor of Health Professions Education, Professor of Internal Medicine, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
Speakers:
Address Malata, Vice Chancellor of the Malawi University of Science and Technology (MUST), Acting Director for the International Centre for Quality Management and Research (ICQMR) at MUST, Malawi
Strengthening African public institutional capacity: Experience from Malawi University of Science and Technology
Nadia Adjoa Sam-Agudu, Pediatric Infectious Disease Specialist, University of Maryland Medical Center, USA
Capacity building for implementation science through regional approaches 
Elsie Kiguli-Malwadde, Director, Health Workforce Education & Development at African Centre for Global Health and Social Transformation (ACHEST), Uganda
Addressing the HIV epidemic through an unique interprofessional approach: STRIPE HIV 
Marietjie de Villiers, Professor in Family Medicine and Principal Investigator Stellenbosch University Collaborative Capacity Enhancement in Districts (SUCCEED), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Creating equitable and impactful  partnerships – The AFREhealth experience
04:00PM – 4:30PM

Health Break, Exhibits, Network
04:30PM – 6:00PM
Politics at the Border: Protecting the Rights and Health of Migrants Coming Across the US-Mexico BorderTrack: Politics, Law, Corruption, Human Rights, Governance, Diplomacy, Strengthening Public Institutions
CS27
The panelists will discuss the situation at the US-Mexico border from public health, medical, legal, policy and human rights perspectives, and explore A) The role of the health sector in safeguarding the health of asylum seekers in detention, the community or during their journey to the US B) The role of the medical and public health sectors in transparency and accountability C) Dual loyalty, especially regarding individuals (and health professionals) working within ICE/CBP/HHS/private prison facilities? D) Ways in which the health and legal sector can work together on documentation, justice and policy change.
Moderator:
Ranit Mishori, Professor of Family Medicine, Georgetown University School of Medicine; Director Asylum Program, Georgetown University Medical Center; Director of Global Health Initiatives, Department of Family Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center; Senior Medical Advisor, Physicians for Human Rights, USA
Speakers:
Astrid Dominguez, Director of the Border Rights Center, Texas ACLU, USA
Kathryn Hampton, Asylum Program Senior Officer, Physicians for Human Rights, USA

Joseph Shin, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Co-Medical Director, Weill Cornell Center for Human Rights, USA

Academic Leadership in an Era of Changing Gender Dynamics
Track: Politics, Law, Corruption, Human Rights, Governance, Diplomacy, Strengthening Public Institutions
CS28
Inclusive Global Health leadership in the 21st century is imperative. In today’s changing gender dynamics, academic institutions should exemplify such leadership by creating an equitable environment for accomplished, diverse women and men to excel in health education, research and innovation. Unfortunately, talented women and LGBTQ individuals experience a significant gap between the stated mission and reality of academia’s power structure. This panel of GH  leaders will address this gap and how universities and research institutions can promote gender equality. Ultimately, this panel could be a call to action to CUGH university leaders to recognize and invest in change.
Moderator
Michele Barry, Senior Associate Dean for Global Health, Stanford University, USA
Speakers:
Abebe Bekele, Dean of Health Sciences, University of Global Health Equity, Rwanda
Ann Kurth, Dean and Lorimer Professor, Yale University School of Nursing, USA;  Fellow, National Academy of Medicine, USA; Fellow, American Academy of Nursing, USA; Chair, Consortium of Universities for Global Health, USA
Patty Garcia, Professor, School of Public Health, Cayetano Heredia University, Peru; Former Minister of Health, Peru; Former Dean, School of Public Health, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru; Former Chief of National Institute of Health, Peru
Nina Schwalbe, Adjunct Assistant Professor, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, USA
Barbara Stoll, Dean, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health, USA
Mental Health of Trainees and Students
CS29
As burnout and physician mental health become increasingly common among healthcare professionals it is essential to address the mental health of students and trainees entering the field of global health. Students who work with those who have experienced trauma, and then return to the demands of an education in healthcare often have extremely limited resources with which to take care of themselves. It is important to know where to find support and resources as well as understand from a fundamental perspective the root cause of mental health challenges starting at the child and adolescent level. For these reasons this panel will provide a discussion of reentry after work abroad, a discussion of the mental health of trainees, and child and adolescent mental health in low and middle income countries. 
Moderator:
Tasdik Hasan, Project Director, Department of Mental Health, Applied Mental Health Research Group (AMHR), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA
Speakers:
Enryka Christopher, Researcher, Center for Population and Development Studies, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, USA
Brandon Kohrt, Charles and Sonia Akman Professor of Global Psychiatry, Director, Division of Global Mental Health, George Washington University, USA
Mellissa Withers, Associate Professor, Department of Preventative Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, USC, USA
Pamela Collins, Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Professor of Global Health, University of Washington, USA
Role of Zoonotic Disease in Global Instability
Track: Planetary Health, One Health, Environmental Health, Climate Change and Pollution
CS30

Zoonotic diseases represent a large percentage of all newly identified infectious diseases as well as existing infectious diseases. Cross-sectoral collaboration is key to understanding and managing public health risks at the human-animal-environment interface and improving global health security.  Perspectives from experts across three continents will illustrate lessons learned from emerging and known zoonotic diseases from detection, prevention, and governance structures needed to mitigate global instability. Recommendations will detail capacity building examples and practical, evidence-based, and cost-effective tools and mechanisms for zoonoses prevention, surveillance and detection, epidemiological and laboratory investigation, risk assessment, and control measures.

Moderator:
Michael Lairmore, Dean and Distinguished Professor, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis; Member, National Academy of Medicine; President, Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, USA
Speakers:
Janetrix Amungi, Associate Professor, Department of Infectious Disease and Global Health, USAID/One Health Workforce Senior Technical Lead-Africa Senior Faculty Advisor Tufts-UGHE-UR One Health Collaborative, Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, USA
Woutrina Smith, Professor, Associate Director, One Health Institute Co-Director, UCGHI Planetary Health Center of Expertise, Co-Director USAID PREDICT Project, University of California, Davis, USA
Eddy K. Syaluha, National Geographic Explorer; Gorilla Doctors, Kahuzi Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo
Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio, Associate Vice President, Conservation and Health EcoHealth Alliance, US, Bolivia
Addressing NCDs and Disability in LMICs Using Community Health and Other Frontline Workers: Constraints and Innovative Approaches
Track: Non-Communicable & Communicable Diseases
CS31

 

Primary health systems in LMICs are struggling to implement effective strategies to address the rising NCD epidemic. Front-line workers, including community health workers, have an important role to play in health care delivery and prevention, but there are many challenges. This session will discuss findings from case studies in Asia and Africa regarding task sharing, workforce preparedness, effectiveness, and the sustainability of such a workforce in the context of weak health care systems and resource constraints. This session draws together research and expertise by leading and emerging researchers from the Nossal Institute for Global Health at the University of Melbourne and the George Institute at the University of New South Wales together with their collaborating partners in Asia and Africa. 

Moderators:
Barbara McPake, Director and Professor, Nossal Institute for Global Health, University of Melbourne, Australia
 
Speakers:
Teralynn Ludwick, Research And Teaching Assistant at Nossal Institute of Global Health, University of Melbourne, Australia
Rohina Joshi, Associate Professor, The George Institute, UNSW, Australia; The George Institute, India
Brian Oldenburg, Professor, Non-Communicable Disease Control, Director, WHO Collaborating Centre of Implementation Research for Prevention & Control of NCDs, Nossal Institute for Global Health, University of Melbourne, Australia
Oral Abstracts 7: Addressing Social Determinants Of Health (SDH)
CS32
Speakers:
Sharron Frood, Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Palliative Care, Kings College London, UK
Barriers To and Recommendations For Providing Care and Support to Children Living as AIDS Orphan in Township Communities  in South Africa; A Cluster Analysis
Bethuel Isoe Nyachienga, Partners in Health – Liberia, Liberia
Care and Community Reintegration of Homeless People Living with Severe Mental Disorders in Maryland County, Liberia
Seth Frndak, Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University at Buffalo, USA
A Mixed Methods Approach to Understanding Mechanisms Behind Neighborhood Disadvantage and Child Behavior in Montevideo, Uruguay
Opio Charles, Public Health, Makerere University, Uganda
Survival time and its predictors among preterm infants in the neonatal period post-discharge in Busoga Region-Uganda June – July 2017
 
Antonio Romero, Nursing, University of Utah, USA
The Forgotten Parent: Indiginous Guatemalan Fathers’ Perspective on Atypical Child Development
Elizabeth King, Health Behavior & Health Education, University of Michigan, USA
Access to HIV Services among Women who Inject Drugs in Russia
 
Veronica Remmert, The University of Texas at Austin, USA
Understanding Community Health Needs and Forging an Academic Global Health Partnership in Puebla, Mexico
Global Health Humanitites: A Critical Examination of Empathy in Intercultural Global Health Contexts
CS33
Global Health Humanities (GHH) is an emerging field in global health that looks at the global problems through the variegated lenses of the humanities. This panel discussion will define and describe the field of GHH through a series of talks on empathy as a fundamental, but largely unexamined concept in global health. Highlighting the opportunities, limitations and pitfalls of empathy, this panel aims to provide fresh perspectives and solutions to a range of issues regarding global health settings, by sharing four critical perspectives: (1) the cultural expressions and portrayals of empathy often ignored by Western traditions; (2) the concept of social empathy and the role of contextual and self-aware engagement towards social justice; (3) the legitimacy of empathy and compassion as effective other-oriented practices; (4) a discussion around privilege, power and Othering in the context of short-term experiences in global health (STEGHs).
 
Moderator:
Quentin Eichbaum, Professor of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology and Professor of Medical Education and Administration at Vanderbilt University, USA
Speakers:
Charles-Antoine Barbeau-Meunier, MD/PhD Candidate, Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
Mary White, Professor, Department of Population and Public Health Sciences, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, USA
Revathi Ravi, Instructor in Medicine and Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, USA
Evidence-Based Policy Guiding Two Decades of Community-Based Primary Health Care in Ghana
Track: Translation and Implementation Science, High Impact Development Initiatives, Bridging Research to Policy, Reforming Academia
CS34

 

This session reviews a phased program of research and action that has supported the scale-up of community-based primary health care in Ghana.  Research methods, impact results, and strategies for fostering utilization are discussed.  Panelists represent participant in this program of embedded implementation science.  Organizational arrangements governing their collaboration are reviewed along with methodologies for the statistical study of health systems strengthening.
Moderator:
James Phillips, Professor Emeritus, Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, USA
Speakers:
Sookhee Baek, Vice President, Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA), Republic of South Korea
Ayaga A. Bawah, Senior Lecturer, University of Ghana Regional Institute for Population Studies, Ghana
S. Patrick Kachur, Professor, Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, USA
John Koku Awoonor-Williams, Director, Policy Planning Monitoring and Evaluation (PPME) Division, Ghana Health Service, Ghana
Juhwan Oh, Professor, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Republic of South Korea

Building Diagnostic Pathology Capacity in Africa – Viability of the “Tiered” Approach to Laboratory Testing
CS35
 
Pathology is severely under-capacitated on the African continent with an estimated shortfall of 27 000 pathologists (Nelson et al, 2011). The pivotal role of pathology and quality assured laboratory testing in health care delivery has likewise been under-appreciated. Coupled with under-resourced and poorly standardized laboratory testing, effective diagnosis becomes challenging leading to presumptive and often incorrect diagnoses and treatment plans that are ineffective and even harmful. Several solutions to this problem have been suggested. Key among these suggested approaches is the “tiered” approach to diagnostic testing that lists specific tests, equipment and quality assurance processes appropriate for each of the four tiers of clinics/hospitals: rural clinics; district hospitals, provincial hospitals, and national teaching hospitals (The Lancet, 2018). However, whether (or to what extent) the “tiered” approach has to date been successfully implemented in African countries remains unclear. This panel will explore the constraints and challenges to implementing the tiered, or similar, approaches to diagnostic testing in Africa.
Moderator:
Quentin Eichbaum, Professor of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology and Professor of Medical Education and Administration at Vanderbilt University, USA
Speakers:
Dan Milner, Chief Medical Officer, American Society for Clinical Pathology, USA
Tim Amukele, Johns Hopkins University, USA; Makerere University, Uganda
Susan J Nabadda, Uganda National Health Laboratories/Central Public Health Laboratories, Uganda
Edwin Walong, Department of Human Pathology, University of Nairobi, Kenya

 

06:30PM – 8:00PM
Film Festival (Open to the Public)
Join us on Sunday, April 19, 2020, at the 2020 Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH) Conference in Washington, DC, for a screening of Pulitzer Center-supported films by journalists, photographers, documentarians and international reporting fellows. Climate change, mental health, gender violence, and communicable diseases are a few of the issues addressed in this year’s film festival.
Register at: 
Featuring: 
Losing Earth from the Air
          Director(s): George Steinmetz and Claire Seaton
Joane: Plastic is Killing Us in the Amazon – Part 4 of the “Rainforest Defenders” Series 
          Director(s): Francesc Badi I Dalmases and Pablo Albarenga
End of AIDS: Far from Over, Russia
          Director(s): Jon Cohen, William Brangham, and Jason Kane
She’s Not a Boy 
          Director(s): Robert Tokanel and Yuhong Pang
Stranded Migrants Share Why They Fled Their Homelands
          Director(s): Mario J. Pentón and Jose Antonio Iglesias
In El Salvador, Violence is Driving Girls to Kill Themselves
          Director(s): Patricia Clarembaux and Almudena Toral
Guanajuato Norte  (Trailer)
          Director(s): Sana Malik and Ingrid Holmquist
India’s Health Care Crisis
          Director(s): Michael Edison Hayden and Sami Siva


Day 3 | Monday | April 20, 2020

9:00AM – 10:30AM

 

Challenges to Health Improvement in Middle-Income Countries: Loss of Foreign Aid, Demographic Shifts, and the Epidemiological Transition
Track: Politics, Law, Corruption, Human Rights, Governance, Diplomacy, Strengthening Public Institutions
CS36
Middle-income countries (MICs) are facing several critical transitions including a shift from infections to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), aging populations, a bulge in the adolescent band of the population pyramid, and the loss of foreign aid for health programs. If these transitions are not well managed, countries could experience backsliding, such as disease resurgence, worsening medical impoverishment, and widening health inequities. This session will provide practical, actionable guidance on the steps that MIC governments, donors, and other key stakeholders can take to mitigate these risks and to continue making progress in achieving universal health coverage and the health-related Sustainable Development Goals.
Moderator:
Gavin Yamey, Professor of Global Health and Public Policy, Director of the Center for Policy Impact in Global Health, Duke Global Health Institute, USA
Speakers:
Amanda Glassman, Executive Vice President and Senior Fellow, Center for Global Development, USA
Osondu Ogbuoji, Assistant Research Professor of Global Health, Deputy Director and Research Lead of the Center for Policy Impact in Global Health, Duke Global Health Institute, USA
Helen Saxenian, Health Economist and Independent Consultant, USA
Seth Terkper, Former Minister of Finance, Ghana
Advancing Quality in Global Health Systems: Quality Management is Critical in the Pathway to Sustainable Change
Strengthening Health Systems, Public Health, Primary and Surgical Care
CS37
Based on experiences in Africa, Latin America, and Asia, this session will address the relevance of quality management in application in low and middle-income countries, often facing critical health system challenges. We will examine the work and experience in a diverse set of applications of quality management including quality planning and governance, improvement at scale, and improvement in the context of health emergencies. Presenters will discuss challenges, adaptations, and opportunities to harness the strength of quality management methods to sustainably strengthen equitable high-performing health systems. Participants will share their experiences and apply these methods to their own quality work.
Moderator:
Lisa Hirschhorn, Professor of Medical Social Science at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, USA
Speakers:
Jafet Arrieta, Project Director and Improvement Advisor for the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI); Medical School and Senior Director for Implementation and Improvement Science at Last Mile Health, USA
Abiyou Kiflie, Deputy Country Director, Institute for Healthcare Improvement, Ethiopia
Anatole Manzi, Deputy Chief Medical Officer, Director, Clinical Quality and Health System Strengthening, Partners In Health (PIH)
Department of Defense’s Role and Collaboration with Partners in the Global Health Space
CS38
The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) plays a unique role in contributing to ongoing global health efforts through its dedication to achieving U.S. national security objectives. DoD plays to its strengths by focusing on building military and civilian partner nation capacity, and maintaining partner nation interoperability and influence in potential conflict regions. In doing so, collaborating and coordinating with other U.S. government departments and agencies, national governments and  international and non-governmental organizations are essential to obtaining the best possible health and security outcomes and avoiding duplication of effort.
Moderator:
RADM Colin Chinn, Senior Advisor, Center for Global Health Engagement, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, USA
Speakers:
J. Christopher Daniel, Senior Advisor, Global Health Engagement, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs, USA
RADM Mitch Wolf, Chief Medical Officer, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA
Rene Van Slate, USAID/Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, Humanitarian Assistance Advisor to INDOPACOM, USA

LTC Sueann Ramsey, Federal Lead, Medical Component, African Peacekeeping Rapid Response Partnership (APRRP), Director, Program Division, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Center for Global Health Engagement, USA

Global Health Perspectives on Academica’s Response to Unrest or Conflict
CS39
 
Political and social unrest around the world  increasingly affect not only our countries and communities but our academic institutions as well. Universities face the challenges of keeping their students, faculty, and staff safe; trying to maintain an academic schedule; and potentially becoming embroiled within the conflicts themselves. This session will explore several perspectives on how academia can respond to these situations, taking guidance from current areas in conflict or unrest.
Moderator:
Ayman El-Mohandes, Dean, CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, USA
Speakers:
Hala Ghattas, Director of our Center for Research on Population and Health, American University of Beirut, Lebanon
Núria Casamitjana, Director of Training and Education, ISGlobal, Barcelona Institute for Global Health, Spain
Chang-Chuan Chan, Dean, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taiwan
Driving Action for Training the Health Equity Workforce of Today and Tomorrow
Track: Addressing the Social Determinants of Health
CS40
In this panel, presenters will define pathways for strengthening the health workforce through training at the academic, professional, community, and governmental levels. Presentations will explore research needed to achieve global recommendations to advance health equity. Strategies for training and research will include:  competencies for trainees at schools and programs of public health completing health equity training; community-engaged and participatory practices for research collaboration; institutional capacity for coproduction of knowledge across different stakeholders; participatory leadership among researchers, civil society members, and policymakers to optimize their collective ability to implement action that uses a health equity lens in day-to-day practices.
Moderator:
Michael Rodriguez, Professor and Vice Chair of the UCLA Departments of Family Medicine and Community Health Sciences, Founding Director of the Health Equity Network of the Americas, and Founding Chair of the UCLA Minor in Global Health, USA
Speakers:
Ana V. Diez Roux, Dean and Distinguished Professor of Epidemiology, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, USA
Patty Garcia, Professor, School of Public Health, Cayetano Heredia University, Peru; Former Minister of Health, Peru; Former Dean, School of Public Health, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru; Former Chief of National Institute of Health, Peru

Laura Magaña, President and CEO, Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, USA

 
Oral Abstracts 9: Strengthening Health Systems, Public Health, Primary and Surgical Care
CS41
Speakers:
Anne Hansen, Division of Newborn Medicine, Children’s Hospital Boston, USA
Non-electric Infant Warmer to Complement Skin to Skin Care
Nisha Nadesan-Reddy, Center for Rural Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
A Multidimensional Model of Mentorship for Emerging Health Research Leaders
Nandini D P Sarkar, Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, BelgiumLGIUM
Afya-Tek: Formative Research Towards a Digitally-enabled, Community-Based Responsive Health System Initiative in Tanzania
Elizabeth Jackson, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, USA
The Impact of a Community Engaged Primary Health Care Intervention on Parental Service Utilization and Child Survival: A Hazard Regression Analysis of Child Survival in Northern Ghana
 
Davika Reid, School of Nursing, The University of Texas at Austin, USA
Assessment of Term-Newborn Care Recommendations in the Curricula at a Baccalaureate-Level Nursing School and Tertiary Public Maternity Hospital in Western Kenya
Juliet Iwelunmor, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, USA
An Innovation Bootcamp Model for Developing HIV Self-Testing Social Enterprise Among Young People in Nigeria
Chisom Obiezu-Umeh, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, USA
Developing HIV Self-Testing Services Through Youth Engagement: A Qualitative Evaluation of a Health Designathon in Nigeria
Oral Abstracts 10: Non-Communicable & Communicable Diseases (NCDs)
CS42
 
Speakers:
Karla Unger-Saldaña, Epidemiology Research Unit, Mexican National Cancer Institute, Mexico
Breast Cancer Diagnostic Delays in Mexico and Peru
Wafa Alam, BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Bangladesh
Readiness of Primary Health Care Facilities for the Management of Non-communicable Diseases in Rural Bangladesh
Kaitlyn Friedman, Duke Global Health Institute, USA
Association of Alcohol Use and Violence-Related Injury in Emergency Department Patients in Moshi, Tanzania
Andrew. K Tusubira, Uganda Research, Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of  Non-Communicable Diseases (UINCD), Uganda
Self-Care Practices and Needs Among Patients with Hypertension and/or Diabetes in Rural Uganda: A Mixed-Methods Study
 
Gillian Ice, Social Medicine, Ohio University, USA
Prevalence and Determinants of Hypertension Unawareness among Egyptian Adults: The 2015 EHIS
 
Sanjana Nujhat, BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Bangladesh
Prevalence of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in Rural Population of Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study
Sarah Moor, School of Medicine, Yale University, USA
Development of a Discrete Choice Experiment to Understand Patient Preferences for Diabetes and Hypertension Management in Rural Uganda
A Future Beyond Imagining: How Humanities May Contribute to Responses to Climate Change
Track: Planetary Health, One Health, Environmental Health, Climate Change and Pollution
CS43
Climate change represents an existential threat to global health. This panel will explore the role that health humanities can play in motivating personal and political activism, and in identifying the moral grounds, interdisciplinary expertise, and political considerations necessary to revise current social norms.  It includes the role of narrative and art in countering denial, how concerns of politics and power have constrained responses to the crisis, and limitations of Western ethical canons in addressing this challenge. It will conclude by pointing towards a bioethics that focuses beyond immediate human concerns to encompass a sustainable future for life on earth.

Moderator:
Quentin Eichbaum, Professor of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology and Professor of Medical Education and Administration at Vanderbilt University, USA
 
Speakers:
Liz Grant, Assistant Principal (President) at the University of Edinburgh, Professor of Global Health and Development and Director of the University’s Global Health Academy, UK
Revathi Ravi, Instructor in Medicine and Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and Assistant in Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, USA
Lise Saffran, Director of the Master of Public Health Program at the University of Missouri and Co-Chair of the Health Humanities Consortium, USA
Mary White, Professor of Medical Ethics and Humanities at the Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, USA
10:30AM – 10:45AM

Health Break (Exhibitor Breakdown at 11:00AM)

 

10:45AM – 12:15PM

NIH Leaders Describe their Vision for Global Health

PL10
What are the global health interests and funding priorities of the U.S. National Institutes of Health leadership team? Find out by joining this session, where you’ll meet NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins and some new and continuing NIH leaders. They’ll describe a major upcoming initiative to strengthen data science in Africa, genomics breakthroughs that are rapidly improving diagnoses and treatment, the research agenda in global cancer research, and a new strategic plan for maternal and child health, among other timely issues. You’ll also have a chance to ask them about your own areas of interest.
Moderator:
Roger I. Glass, Associate Director for Global Health Research, NIH and Director, Fogarty International Center, NIH
Speakers:
Francis S. Collins, Director, NIH
Diana Bianchi, Director, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH
Patti Brennan, Director, National Library of Medicine, NIH
Satish Gopal, new Director, Center for Global Health, National Cancer Institute, NIH
Jill Heemskerk, Deputy Director, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, NIH

The Planetary Health – One Health – Environmental Health Opportunity: How We Can Save the Planet and Ourselves
PL11

This plenary session will address leading planetary health threats. Speakers will share practical, high impact solutions and the co-benefits they provide for health and environmental outcomes. The benefits will be framed against the backdrop of their impact on the Sustainable Development Goals including: noncommunicable diseases, infectious diseases, security and poverty reduction. Attendees will learn how to bridge the science-political divide to gain support for evidence based solutions that can address urgent environmental threats  in these challenging political times.  
 
Moderator:
Keith Martin, Executive Director, Consortium of Universities for Global Health, USA
Biodiversity Losses- the 6th Extinction 
Speakers:
Jon Patz, Professor and John P. Holton Chair of Health and the Environment, Director, The Global Health Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
Climate Change 
Sandra Postel, Director and Founder, Global Water Policy Project, National Geographic, USA
Freshwater Security 
Andrew MacCabe, President, AAVMC, USA
Animal Health and Human Health 
12:15PM – 01:30PM

Lunch Break
01:30PM – 03:00PM

What Will it Take to Build Capacity to Control Cervical Cancer Globally?
PL12
This session will highlight the need for a whole of society approach to the control of cervical cancer, a preventable and treatable cancer that affects over half a million women each year with more than 80% of those being from low- and middle-income countries.  The interactive session will explore the importance of research, policy, partnership-building and strategic coordination to ensure impact at the local and global level. Panelists will consider efforts and lessons learned in various settings globally to address cervical cancer, assessing how health disparities result in no access to care in underserved populations. After laying the groundwork for discussion, the panelists will field suggestions from participants about the gaps that have not been presented, additional questions that need to be asked, and best practices that are working right now in particular settings or in particular disease areas from which lessons can be learned.
 
Moderator:
Edward L. Trimble, Senior Advisor for Global HPV and Cervical Cancer Research and Control, Office of the Director, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, USA
Speakers:
Isaac F. Adewole, Professor, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Karla Alfaro, Medical Director, Basic Health International, El Salvador
Ophira M. Ginsburg, Associate Professor, Department of Population Health; Associate Professor, Department of Medicine; Director Perlmutter Cancer Center High Risk Program, USA
Julie S. Torode, Director of Special Projects, Union for International Cancer Control, Switzerland
Gun Violence – Stopping a Global Public Health Disaster
PL13
Gun violence is a major global public health issue and the Americas are in the midst of an unmitigated public health crisis.  For over a decade now, the Americas have had the highest rates of lethal violence in the world. Guns are the vector of this disease epidemic. According to a recent JAMA study, of the over 250,000 global gun deaths each year, six countries account for more than half—the U.S., Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela and Guatemala.  And just as it does in the region’s countries, the epidemic also concentrates within the region’s cities and affects mostly younger populations. In 2018, 47 of the 50 most violent cities in the world were in the Americas, with gun violence regularly constituting upwards of 80% of fatalities. Reducing gun violence has become a top priority for citizens and governments throughout the hemisphere, with cities, at the epicentre of the crisis, showing remarkable leadership.  

Moderator:
Jeremy Biddle, Founder and Executive Director of the Metropolitan Peace Institute (MetroPEACE), USA
Speakers:
Jessica Molina, whose husband was forcibly disappeared in Nuevo Laredo by Mexican Navy troops last year, and who has testified before the Inter-American Human Rights Commission, Mexico
Arturo Cervantes Trejo, Chair of  Health Sciences, Anahuac University, Mexico
Philip Alpers, Founder of GunPolicy.org, Adjunct Associate Professor, Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Australia
John Lindsay-Poland, Stop US Arms to Mexico, A Project of Global Exchange, USA
Leila N. Sadat, Special Advisor on Crimes Against Humanity, International Criminal Court Prosecutor, James Carr Professor of International Criminal Law; Director, Whitney R. Harris World Law Institute, Washington University School of Law, USA
03:00PM – 03:15PM

Summary and Closing

 

03:30PM – 05:00PM

Pulitzer and Global Health Now Communications Workshop – close at 5:30 for 2 hour workshop
This special session of the 11th Annual CUGH Conference brings together communication specialists, researchers and Pulitzer Center-supported global health journalists. The goal: to educate workshop participants about the skills needed to pitch a story, translate complex issues to a lay audience, and make both traditional and nontraditional media work for them. Participants will get a chance to try out their story ideas too during pitch sessions!

Moderator:
Amesh Adalja, Senior Scholar, Center for Health Security, Johns Hopkins University, USA

Speakers:
Jon Cohen,
Senior Correspondent,  Science Magazine, USA
Isabella Gomes, 2019 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg-Pulitzer Center Reporting Fellow, USA
Ann Peters, University and Community Outreach Director, Pulitzer Center, USA
Brian W. Simpson, Editor-in-Chief, Global Health NOW and Hopkins Bloomberg Public Health Magazine, USA

 

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